What are Common Computer Hardware Devices and Peripherals?

Computers are devices that have heavily permeated our daily lives in many aspects, enhancing how we communicate, work, entertain ourselves, and much more. While diverse in their designs and capabilities to accommodate a variety of operations, most computers utilize the same type of basic hardware that makes their use possible. In this blog, we will discuss some of the most common computer hardware parts and peripherals, allowing you to have a better understanding of some of the key components of such systems.

The central processing unit, or CPU, is often considered to be the brain of the computer, executing all operations of the system. Generally, billions of transistors are implemented on a computer chip to form the CPU module assembly, allowing for countless calculations to be carried out. In order for all other hardware parts to function as intended, they must be connected to the CPU board assembly.

While the CPU is an indispensable part of any computer system, so too is Random Access Memory (RAM). With RAM, information and data may be temporarily stored and executed for the functionality of various programs. While RAM is known for its high speed in reading and writing data, such hardware is volatile in nature. This means that as soon as the computer is shut down or loses power, all data is wiped from the RAM modules.

Hard disk drives (HDDs) are somewhat similar to RAM, albeit featuring different roles and characteristics. Hard disk drives are useful for permanent data storage as a non-volatile device, ensuring that all files can be retained on a system as needed. With an electromagnet surface, large amounts of data may be stored, read, and edited through magnetism. In order for the hard disk drive to effectively communicate with the CPU, a hard disk control system is used.

While such components and others make up the internal parts of a computer system, there are also many important peripherals that ensure such devices can be used properly. A monitor is a very important addition to any computer system, allowing for video, graphics, and potentially audio to be conveyed. Through the use of cabling and monitor accessories, a monitor may serve as an output for the video card, CPU, and other computer components. Laptops also feature a monitor for the output of video, though such components serve as a built-in part of the system.

While the monitor ensures that data can be conveyed in an image or video, other peripherals such as mice allow for data manipulation. With a connected mouse, the operator of the system may direct a cursor around the screen, allowing them to click, scroll, and otherwise affect data, programs, and more. Depending on one’s needs, mice may either be wired or wireless.

Keyboards are similar to the use of mice, albeit allowing for text and commands to be input into the computer. Keyboards also range from wired to wireless types, and many will feature letters, numbers, and a variety of special characters to best manipulate data. Similar to monitors, keyboards will often be a built-in feature of laptops and similar devices.

If one needs to transfer various data onto paper, printers are a useful accessory to computers. Coming in a wide variety of types that vary in their size, processing speed, and other characteristics, printers simply take what is seen on the computer and translate it into a paper-based form.


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