Visual Flight Rules, or VFR, refers to a set of guidelines under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions clear enough for the pilot to see where the aircraft is going. VFR requires a pilot to be able to see outside the cockpit, control the aircraft’s altitude, navigate, and avoid other obstacles and aircraft. Different governing bodies have unique requirements for VFR flight, but factors such as minimum visibility and distance from clouds are always taken into consideration. The opposite of VFR flight is IFR, or instrument flight rules, in which the operation of the aircraft is done primarily through the use of instruments rather than visual reference. In modern aircraft, there are many instruments at the pilot’s disposal during both VFR and IFR flight. While VFR flight has the added bonus of visibility, instruments are still key. This blog will cover the primary aeronautic navigation instruments necessary for VFR flight.


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When moving an aircraft away from the airport gate or out of a hanger, a towbar is an indispensable piece of equipment. Aircraft engines are powerful, thus if used in close proximity to equipment and structures, they can pose serious damage or safety risks. Engines are expensive to run, and thus it is not beneficial to spend fuel that is best reserved for takeoff and flight. Because of these concerns, towbars along with pushback tractors are used to safely taxi aircraft around a runway. As aircraft come in many types and sizes, choosing the Right Aircraft Towbar for your needs is important.


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Heavy lifting is a necessary procedure in almost every industry and plant. Hoists are the main method of being able to move heavy loads and equipment. They often do this though vertical lift, meaning the load is lifted straight up without lateral swinging, and this is achieved through the use of wheels or grooved drums. In regards to electric hoists, the two main types that are most utilized by industries are Chain and Wire Rope Hoists. To choose between them, one should consider a variety of factors including the industry, load capacity, working environment, and more due to their different designs and abilities.


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As the heart of any automated machine, the engine requires a substantial amount of attention and care. Without a properly-functioning engine, your automobile, no matter how sophisticated, will be rendered obsolete. To help keep your engine clean and operating smoothly, manufacturers install air and Oil filters to stop particles of dirt and grime from coating or entering the engine.


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When piloting an aircraft, there are several inspections and checks that must be implemented before taking off. One of the various items to inspect on an aircraft before taking off is the rudder. This is because the rudder is vital for ensuring that you as the pilot are on the centerline of the runway. The right rudder, specifically, is responsible for preventing the plane from veering toward the left outermost edge. Should there be any issues with this part, the chances that your takeoff and landing could be impacted increases significantly. If there is ever an instance where rudder failure is an issue, the best strategy to implement is that which is pre-planned. For those unfamiliar with aircraft and the physics behind how they are able to take flight, it is important to understand why the rudder is so important. Knowing this will help in understanding the reason for an aircraft’s natural tendency to turn left. There are four reasons for this, those being the torque, P-factor, gyroscopic precession, and the spiraling slipstream. For a more detailed outline of these three factors, see below:


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When we think of aircraft functionality, we tend to forgo the importance of the wheels and brakes. Although the main functionality of aircraft is to fly, wheels and brakes are what enable the aircraft to both start movement, and safely land at their various destinations. They are expensive and important components, and often are subjected to great deterioration with every flight. With wear and tear of any aerospace part comes the need for maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO).


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For as long as there has been computing, there has been a need to store the information produced by computing as memory. In this blog, we will explore a brief history of computer memory, from its origins to modern day. The first type of computer memory took the form of paper punch cards. Punch cards were first used in 1725 in the textile industry, to control the mechanized textile looms. In the 1890s, Herman Hollerith used punch cards for census calculation for determining the population of the United States. Essentially a thick sheet of paper with holes punched through it, patterns could be imprinted on the punch card that could be interpreted by a machine. Later, they were used as an input device for computers up to the 1970s.


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Memory in a computer is any hardware that can store data for any amount of time. If a computer memory is volatile, the information stored on the hardware is lost after the power source is disconnected. In contrast, non-volatile computer memory retains the stored information. Under these two broad categories are many subtypes of memory.


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A DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) is comprised of a series of dynamic random-access memory integrated circuits. This small piece of technology has the fascinating ability to provide central memory storage and data directly to the CPU it is in tandem with. It was evolved from its predecessor, the SIMM, and is capable of maintaining double the data path at 64-bit. The DIMM is also twice as small, leaving room for other components within the CPU.    


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In the current age of technology, the motherboard is arguably one of the most commonly recognized computer components. Often pictured as a green, square circuit board panel, this device, in tandem with a few other main components, allows modern computer systems to accomplish specific calculations and tasks on behalf of various industries. From aircraft avionics systems to your desktop at home, a computer is typically made up of the same four components— motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), hard drive, and a random-access Memory (RAM) module.


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One of the most important aspects to consider when looking for a new computer is probably the memory. In Computer memory, the storage space in the computer where data is processed and stored, making it one of the determining factors in how well your computer performs. In general, there are two types of computer memory: primary memory and secondary memory.           


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When operating any type of equipment from a cell phone to a jet plane, you’re provided with the status information of the equipment or machinery in question.  For example, your cell phone constantly tells you what the battery life is at and how much cell signal you get. Your car tells you how much fuel is left, how fast you’re driving, etc. As the sophistication of the equipment increases, so does the need for accurate and reliable instrumentation.


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